Section 1


Cyberbullying is a specific form of bullying that involves technology. According to Hinduja and Patchin,11 cyberbullying is “willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices.”

While the definition of cyberbullying aligns with the traditional definition of bullying, the likelihood of repeated harm from one cyberbullying incident is quite high. This is because instances of cyberbullying can be accessed by multiple parties, forwarded to or shared with others, linked to other sites/apps and revisited by targets of the aggression — resulting in repeated exposure and repeated harm.

Relational Aggression

Bullying that affects a child’s social standing or status is a form of relational aggression.12,13 It can take many forms, including shunning, hazing, spreading rumors, excluding others or teasing. Contrary to popular opinion, both boys and girls engage in relational aggression.